All processes in the PMBoK manual are divided into the following groups:
- Group of initiation processes
The group of initiation processes consists of processes that facilitate the formal authorization of the start of a new project.
- Develop Project Charter
- Identity Stakeholders
- Planning Process Group
Defines and clarifies goals and plans actions necessary to achieve the goals and content for which the project was undertaken. The planning process group includes the following processes:
- Develop Project Management Plan
- Plan Scope Management
- Collect Requirements
- Define Scope
- Creating a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
- Develop a Schedule Management Plan
- Define Activities
- Sequence Activities
- Estimate Activity Resources
- Estimate Activity Durations
- Develop Schedule
- Developing a cost management plan
- Estimate Costs
- Determine Budget
- Plan Quality
- Develop Human Resource Plan
- Plan Communications
- Plan Risk Management
- Identify Risks
- Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
- Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
- Plan Risk Responses
- Plan Procurements
- Develop a Stakeholder Management Plan
- A group of execution processes
Unites human and other resources to implement the project management plan for this project. The process group includes the following processes:
- Direct and Manage Project Execution
- Perform Quality Assurance
- Acquire Project Team
- Develop Project Team
- Manage Project Team
- Manage Communications
- Conduct Procurements
- Manage Stakeholder Engagement
- Monitoring and Management Process Group
Regularly evaluates project progress and monitors to detect deviations from the project management plan, and, if necessary, take corrective actions to achieve project objectives. The monitoring and management process group includes the following processes:
- Monitor and Control Project Work
- Perform Integrated Change Control
- Validate Scope
- Control Scope
- Control Schedule
- Control Costs
- Perform Quality Control
- Monitor and Control Communications
- Monitor and Control Risks
- Control Procurement
- Control Stakeholder Engagement
- Group of final processes
Formalizes the acceptance of a product, service or result and brings the project or phase of the project to a proper conclusion. The group of terminating processes contains the following processes:
- Close Project or Phase
- Close Procurement
- Groups of project management processes are presented in Fig. 1. It is not necessary to confuse process groups and stages of the project life cycle, they have similar names, but different meanings.
Figure 1. Process groups by PMBoK.
Each group of processes corresponds to a certain action from one or another area of knowledge. This table in Fig. 2 shows the relationship of process groups and knowledge areas, at the intersection defined project management activities performed at a certain stage of project management.
Figure 2. Separation of project management processes and areas of knowledge into groups.
Life Cycle by PMBoK
The life cycle of a project is a set that includes successive and sometimes overlapping phases of the project, the names and number of which are determined based on the management, monitoring and control needs of the particular organization or several organizations that are involved in the project, as well as the specifics of the project itself . The standard life-cycle view of the project is presented in Fig. 3. The PMBoK methodology involves documentation of the life cycle. The unique properties of an organization, industry, or applied approaches can greatly influence the life cycle of a project. Based on the definition of the uniqueness of the project and its limited time (beginning – end), certain results and processes included in the project can vary widely for each specific project. Through the life cycle, the basic structure of project management is built, despite the content (concrete works) of this project.
PMBoK Tools and Techniques
The methodology of PMBoK describes various tools and techniques, which, in practice, the Project Manager or the responsible person can improve the efficiency of the project implementation, provide risks, calculate the optimal routes for the project, reasonably assess the situation and initially make the right decision, etc. . These tools and techniques exist by themselves and have long been used in various areas of human activity. In PMBoK processes, there are inputs, outputs, and methods. It is during the implementation of the methods of certain processes and it is implied the application of the Project Manager of certain tools and techniques. Below is a list of the main methods, tools and techniques applicable to certain processes. Responsible for the implementation of the corporate project management system incl. methods and approaches is the Project Office.
- Decision Tree Analysis.
- Assumptions Analysis.
- Analysis of Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis.
- Variance Analysis.
- Schedule Network Analysis or Network Analysis
- Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Analysis, or SWOT Analysis
- Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, FMEA
- Sensitivity analysis
- Fast Tracking
- Resource Leveling
- Precedence Diagramming Method, PDM
- Delphi Technique
- Critical Path Methodology (CPM)
- Critical Chain Method
- Monte Carlo Analysis
- Earned Value Technique (EVT)
- Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
- Bottom-up Estimating
- Rolling Wave Planning
- Earned Value Management (EVM).
- The Gantt Chart
- The Pareto Chart
- Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS)
- Project Management Information System (PMIS)
- The Probability and Impact Matrix
- Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
- Milestone Schedule
- Schedule Model
- Work Authorization System
- Change Control System
- Configuration Management System
Examinations, certification and training
At the moment, there are about 500,000 managers and project management specialists certified in PMP – Project Management Professional. The degree of project management PMP, can get every specialist from any industry. PMP allows you to join the ranks of the largest and most prestigious community of project management professionals. To obtain a PMP degree, it is necessary to meet certain requirements for education and work experience. It is also necessary to pass the exam in the form of a test on a computer in the specialized accredited centers around the world (Registered Education Provider). This test is designed for an objective evaluation of the applicant’s competencies in the part of project management.
Requirements for a candidate:
It is necessary to comply with the first or second category. The first category is higher education (not lower than the bachelor’s degree), 4,500 hours (36 non-intersecting months in the last 6 years) in the field of project management (in five process groups) prior to application. Also, at the time of application, the applicant must have 35 hours of training (PDU).
Through the PMP degree test, application of knowledge and skills, use of tools and methods used in practice in project management are evaluated. Back in 1997, the requirements for the exam were developed. The bidder must choose one correct answer from 4 options for each of the 200 questions. The test itself consists of 175 questions, the remaining 25 questions are determined as pretest and do not go into credit. All questions in the test are developed by a commission consisting of specialists with a PMP degree. The questions included in the test are checked every year for compliance with the examination requirements. To successfully pass the test, the applicant, for 4 hours, must respond positively to 106 questions out of 175. It turns out that the passing score for the exam is 61%.