Artificial intelligence: what is it
What is AI and is it dangerous for humanity?
What Is Artificial Intelligence?
As defined in Wikipedia, artificial intelligence is a section of computer linguistics and computer science, when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that people associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”. In other words, the computer does what we did until recently. The concept of AI was introduced by the professor of Dartmouth College John McCarthy in 1956. He wondered whether it was possible to teach a machine to think in abstract way, to use the to improve its linguistic skills and mental abilities by the trial and error method.
AI Has Already Made Part of Our Life
Currently, we face artificial intelligence every day. This is Siri or Alexa voice search, which is available on iOS, Android and Windows. In video games there are characters who can behave unpredictably for a live player. Autonomous cars analyze the situation on the road and act according to the circumstances.
Online customer support on the sites is able to answer the question like: “What is the price?” “What are your contacts?” and so on with no assistance of a human being.
Internet recommendations for goods and products you may be interested in are also based on the analysis of the websites you visit.
But the inventors did not stop there. For example, researchers from the American University of Carnegie Mellon created an algorithm owing the robot program Libratus won $ 2 million in poker, beating four professional players in no-limit Texas Hold’em. Libratus divided the game into four parts, analyzed the actions of opponents and eliminated its possible mistakes.
Also, Google artificial intelligence beated the Stockfish 8 chess game program without losing a single batch out of 100. The AlphaGo Zero developers claim that they just introduced the algorithms of the game into the program, and the AI autonomously upgraded itself within 24 hours, playing chess with itself and achieving thus superhuman professional excellence allowing it later to beat Ke Jie, a professional player in Go (Chinese checkers, a game which is much more difficult to master than chess) . This proves that artificial intelligence can improve itself without human assistance, and later will be independent of humans.
A robot with artificial intelligence, which obtained citizenship in Saudi Arabia in October 2017, is called Sofia. She gives numerous interviews, conducts negotiations in various sectors, especially in the banking sector, and is able to reproduce about 60 emotions.
When receiving her passport Sophia said that it was an honor for her to be the first robot to obtain citizenship. During this event, she answered the question of a journalist Andrew Ross Sorkin asserting that “we all want to predict a bad future” and implying that robots like Sophia can destroy humanity. Sofia answered half-seriously with a hint of sarcasm: ” You’ve been reading too much Elon Musk. And watching too many Hollywood movies, do not worry, if you’re nice to me, I’ll be nice to you”.
Earlier in 2016, there was another similar amusing incident. Sophia’s inventor David Hanson asked her if she wanted to destroy the humanity and asked: “Please say no”. Sophia replied: “Ok, I will destroy the humanity”.
Predictions of Scientists
You can notice that robots go on replacing people. Scientists predict that now machines with the artificial intelligence can help people at work, and later (approximately by 2053) they will completely replace them. Artificial intelligence may be useful in industry, it is able as well to perform some kinds of routine work, but how can a human being be replaced by a robot, for example, in journalism? In fact, large publishing houses, such as the Associated Press, have been using robotic journalists for several years by now. They just look for information, prepare it and present it in a logical way. Their information is dry and absolutely impartial. Scientists say that things continue to be like this only the best journalists able to write analytical materials will survive, and simple texts, for example, notes, will be created by robots, since in thisway a publisher or a company can reduce their expences. Nothing of the kind. It may even involve us in making progress for the purpose of getting new interesting and creating professions.
Why Is Artificial Intelligence Dangerous?
However nothing can be absolutely perfect, as programs tend to fail.
In Washington, a robot policeman refused to perform his duties and drowned in a fountain. Luckily, there were no other victims. At a technology exhibition, the Little Chubby bot for kids got out of control and started crashing the glass stand. When one of its developers tried to stop the bot, he was injured in the leg and hospitalized. Facebook gave up on artificial intelligence, when robots Bob and Alice, supposed to become user supportteam, created their own language and started using it for communication exclusively. Is this an ordinary failure or signals to be taken into account?
In 2015, more than a thousand of IT experts, robot specialists, scientists and theorists signed an open letter speaking about the necessity to give up on dangerous tools, or weapons, with artificial intelligence. “Just as most chemists and biologists have no interest in building chemical or biological weapons, most AI researchers have no interest in building AI weapons — and do not want others to tarnish their field by doing so, potentially creating a major public backlash against AI that curtails its future societal benefits. In summary, we believe that AI has great potential to benefit humanity in many ways, and that the goal of the field should be to do so. Starting a military AI arms race is a bad idea, and should be prevented by a ban on offensive autonomous weapons beyond meaningful human control, – is said in the letter, which was published by the Future of Life Institute. This outstanding petition was signed by Noam Chomsky, the founder of Apple Inc. Steve Wozniak, author of SpaceX project Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking.
No one knows how it will end. Will the humanity be conquering outer space, while robots will perform their functions, or will it be saved boarding the recently presented spacecraft designed by Elon Musk, losing control over invincible machines and flying away?